2 edition of mean winds of the upper troposphere over the central and eastern Pacific found in the catalog.
mean winds of the upper troposphere over the central and eastern Pacific
James C. Sadler
|Statement||by James C. Sadler.|
|Series||ENVPREDRSCHFAC technical paper no. 8-72, ENVPREDRSCHFAC technical paper ;, no. 72-8.|
|LC Classifications||QC935 .S22|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||29|
|LC Control Number||74167328|
a, Vertical wind velocity (upward positive; colour), boundary layer height (black curve) and wind convergence (contours for ±1, 2, 3 × s-1) averaged in the along-front direction in the. The red values indicate wetter than average, and blue drier than average conditions. The red features over the eastern Pacific ocean shown in winters of but not indicate that the SST has warmed off the coast of South and Central America and the upper atmosphere is much more humid than average due to increased tropical convection.
wind anomalies in the middle and upper troposphere over the Altiplano, resulting in increased moisture influx from the interior of the continent near the Altiplano surface. The Bolivian High is intensified and displaced southward. On the other hand, westerly winds usually prevail during DRY summer periods, preventing the moisture transport from. In meteorological terms, they are tropical cyclones that have maximum sustained winds of at least km/h (75 mph). Atlantic and eastern Pacific storms are called hurricanes, from the West Indian huracan ("big wind"), whereas western Pacific storms are called typhoons, from the Chinese taifun, "great wind.".
Sadler, J. C., The mean winds of the upper troposphere over the central and eastern Pacific. Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. UHMET and ENVPREDRSCHFAC Tech. Paper No. 29 pp. Sadler, J. C., A role of the tropical upper tropospheric trough in early season typhoon development. usually associated with stronger monsoons over Indian Ocean and eastern tropical Africa during La-Nina years which may lead to above normal rainfall. Also, during the strongest easterlies in the upper troposphere can be noticed to extend from over the west Pacific Ocean to Atlantic Ocean. So, the more zonal extend of the TEJ may enhance the.
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The summer TUTT in the Southern Hemisphere lies over the trade wind region of the east central Pacific and can cause tropical cyclogenesis offshore Central America. University of Hawaii Professor James C.
Sadler has documented tropical cyclones over the eastern North Pacific that were revealed by weather satellite observations, and suggested that the upper-tropospheric circulation is a factor. By 20th-century standards, the Central Pacific trade winds that drive the El Nino–Southern Oscillation feedback system to instability have been unusually strong in the 21st century.
The annual summer melts of Arctic sea ice are up to twice as large in area as in the 20th century. Arctic sea ice, upper atmospheric circulation, surface wind, and sea-surface temperature data provide Cited by: 1.
sitely directed trade-wind anomalies in the Central and Eastern Pacific during boreal winter. The interaction of upper troposphere waves with the ITCZ air–sea column may also trigger Central Pa-cific El Nino events.
Finally, waves reflected northward from the ITCZ air column and/or generated by triggered El Nino events may be responsible for. Climate - Climate - Winds in the stratosphere and mesosphere: The winds in the stratosphere and mesosphere are usually estimated from temperature data collected by satellites.
The winds at these high levels are assumed to be geostrophic. Overall, in the midlatitudes, they have a westerly component in the winter and an easterly component in the summer. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper describes the mean atmospheric conditions associated with synoptic-scale rainfall fluctuations over Central America during the rainy season.
The study is based on composites of wet and dry spells; these composites are generated from six years (–94 and ) of daily rainfall observations from select. K.-M. Lau, S. Yang, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition), Summary.
The Walker Circulation comprises east–west atmospheric circulation cells along the equatorial belt. The most dominant component is the Pacific branch, which consists of easterly winds at the lower troposphere, westerly winds at the upper troposphere, rising motion over the western Pacific, and.
In NCEP, the zonal wind from the eastern Indian Ocean (~60°E) to the date line is easterly in the upper troposphere and weak westerly in the lower troposphere, and the zonal wind direction is just opposite over the central to eastern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
The strong upper-tropospheric easterly centered at hPa over the Indian Ocean. The mean winds over the equatorial eastern Pacific in summer were within ms -t of climatology [Cli- mate Analysis Center, ].
Figure 2 shows the average daily march (in local time) of the zonal wind component during summer at all loca- tions where data were reported on at least 60 days. The daily mean zonal winds have.
In the upper troposphere, convergence (and therefore enhanced sinking motion) is intensified in the latter period over North Africa and central tropical Pacific ocean; and divergence (indicative of enhance convection) is enhanced over the tropical zone of South America and (to.
Negative-tilt troughs commonly are associated with severe weather events in the western United States, and with cool-season severe weather outbreaks over the central and eastern states.
Figure 4. mb (approximat' altitude) upper air analysis over the western United States and eastern Pacific, valid am MDT ( UTC) Across the north Atlantic and southwest Indian Ocean, they require central convection fairly near the center and a warming core in the mid-levels of the troposphere.
Across the eastern half of the northern Pacific, they require a mid-tropospheric cyclone to be cut off from the main belt of the westerlies and only a weak surface circulation. Over the tropical oceans, averaged over a region several hundred kilometers on a side, evaporation is expected to be roughly proportional to wind speed because near-surface humidity and temperature are relatively uniform, even as wind speed and area-averaged precipitation rate fluctuate greatly from day to day (Raymond et al.
; Sobel et al. ; Johnson and Lin ; Bretherton et. Lower and upper tropospheric pollution. Concentrations of important trace gases and aerosols are typically factors of 2 to 10 higher over the Mediterranean than in the hemispheric background troposphere; for example, over the North Pacific Ocean in summer ().We used the North Pacific for comparison because it is expected to be the least polluted environment at low northern.
a warming of eastern equatorial Pacific waters. Waves in the jet stream pattern are called. In the upper troposphere over the middle latitudes, winds are generally westerly. the wind in the upper troposphere blows from the _____ while the surface winds are blowing from the northeast.
Previous studies have found that under global warming, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related rainfall variability will become enhanced over the tropical central-eastern Pacific and weakened over the western Pacific. The climatological sea surface temperature (SST) warming pattern exhibits a warming center in the equatorial eastern Pacific in projections.
A.V. Fedorov, J.N. Brown, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition), Delayed Oscillator. Zonal wind fluctuations associated with ENSO occur mainly in the western equatorial Pacific and give rise to basin-wide vertical movements of the thermocline that affect SSTs mainly in the eastern equatorial Pacific.
During El Niño, the thermocline in the east deepens resulting in the. The 12Z analysis of the mean wind (white streamlines with arrows to depict direction) through a deep layer of the troposphere on Aug Speeds of the mean wind in this layer are color-coded in knots.
Irene was being steered toward the northwest at this time by the mean winds in this layer. the ocean. Low pressure center is established over land while high pressure center is established over oceans.
Winds blow from ocean to land and bring large amounts of water vapor to produce heavy precipitation over land: A rainy season. During winters, land surface cools down fast and sets up a high pressure center.
Winds blow from land to. Each of these fields are averaged over the four-month period from November to February for each of the years, and The first two years are influenced by warm events in the central Pacific, while is a colder year with a well-developed cold tongue of SST along the equator in the eastern Pacific.
FIB In the trade wind portion of the Northern Hemisphere, the wind in the upper troposphere blows from the _____ while the surface winds are blowing from the northeast. southwest FIB ________ refers to a seasonal reversal of winds and is derived from an Arabic term. Pacific Ocean, body of salt water extending from the Antarctic region in the south to the Arctic in the north and lying between the continents of Asia and Australia on the west and North and South America on the east.
Its area, excluding adjacent seas, encompasses about million square miles.ized by a warm troposphere over the Eurasian continent and a cold troposphere over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. This anomalous pattern may be an important factor affecting the monthly-scale prediction skill of East Asian precipitation (Chen et al., ) and is also closely linked to the atmo-spheric circulation in the Northern.HURRICANES form in areas of enhanced thunderstorms over warm, tropical oceans and are the most destructive storms on Earth ().The destructive fury of hurricanes comes from a combination of high winds, heavy rains, and abnormally high waves and storm tides.
The deadliest hurricane in U.S. history occurred in Galveston, Texas in when an estimated people perished.